I am working on a book named Architecture in a Technological Society: The Humanists Versus the Reactionary Avant Garde
It is still a work in progress, but I have posted a few chapters on the web to get comments on them. You can read them at http://www.preservenet.com/archtech/
Here is a selection from Chapter 1:
Today’s avant-gardist architects consider themselves
progressive, but they are actually reactionary: they have forgotten the lessons
of the 1960s and the 1970s and have gone back to the technophilia of
Society in general has moved beyond modernism since the
1970s, largely as a result of the environmental movement. There are only two
groups in today’s society that celebrate technology uncritically. One is the
“drill, baby, drill” wing of the Republican party, which knows that it is
conservative because it sticks with the technophilia of the 1950s. The other is
the architectural establishment, which has somehow convinced itself that it is
progressive because it is reviving the technophilia of the 1950s.
Today’s avant-gardism is a reactionary style, a cliquish
taste that ignores the lessons that society began to learn in the 1970s. It is
retrograde esthetically, a revival of earlier modernist styles. It is
retrograde politically, coming at a time in history when it is vital to limit
This recent history of architecture and urbanism is
important because it deals involves a key issue of our time: How should we use
technology for human purposes?
Among mid-century modernists, the design centered on the
technology. The dogma was that the design must be an “honest expression” of
modern materials and functions—in other words, an expression of modern
technology. The modernists’ designs were so striking visually that they helped
spread technophilia through society.
Among the serious postmodernists and the New Urbanists,
design centers on the human users. They are not against modern technology, but
they are selective in their use of technology. They use modern technology when
it helps to create good places for people.
For example, modernists designed cities around the
automobile. They had faith that this new technology would improve our lives
and, in any case, would inevitably dominate our lives, because you can’t stop
progress. By the 1960s, it was becoming clear that the modernists’ theories had
created an ugly, environmentally destructive suburban landscape of freeways,
shopping malls, and auto-dependent subdivisions.
The New Urbanists take a more reasonable view of this
technology, accommodating the automobile but not letting it dominate our lives.
New Urbanist design centers on creating streets and public spaces that are
attractive, comfortable places for people, and it accommodates the automobile
ways that further this goal. They emphasize that their traditional urbanism can
accommodate any style of architecture, and they mention Tel Aviv and Miami’s
South Beach as examples of cities where good traditional urbanism is combined
with modernist architecture, but their goal is to create good places rather
than to design an “expression” of modern technology.
Modernists also designed individual buildings around new
technology: the buildings were “honest expressions” of glass, steel, and
concrete. By the 1970s, it was becoming clear that these buildings were cold,
sterile and overwhelming. Serious postmodernists tried to design buildings that
were attractive, comfortable places for people to be.
Yet today’s avant gardists have gone back to the sterile
high-tech design of the modernists with added “artistic” touches. They often
create very uncomfortable places for people to be.
The use of technology is a key issue of our time, because
modern technology gives us more power and more freedom of choice than ever
We can use the power that technology gives us well or badly.
Modern technology can be immensely beneficial; an obvious example is polio
vaccination. And it can be immensely destructive; an obvious example is nuclear
weapons. We need to use the beneficial technology and limit the destructive
We can use the freedom of choice that technology gives us
well or badly. For example, traditional agricultural societies had a limited
variety of foods that they grew locally, they prepared these foods in a few
conventional ways, and they lived with the constant threat of hunger. Modern
societies have a greater abundance and variety of foods, which gives us much
more choice about what we eat. Everywhere in the world, people can choose to
eat the corn that was domesticated in the Americas, the rice that was
domesticated in Asia, the wheat and barley that were domesticated in the Middle
East, the spices that were domesticated in the Indies, and a vast number of other
foods that originated in every corner of the world. We can use this abundance
to eat a more varied and healthier diet than any society in the past, or we can
use it to eat a diet that is heavy on processed food and high-fructose corn
syrup, the diet that has made today’s American more obese than any society in
It is easy to add similar examples. Modern technology lets
us choose among a huge variety of drugs, which we can use to cure diseases or
which we can abuse to feed addictions.
The same reasoning applies to architecture. Modern
technology lets us choose among many different ways to build. Traditional
societies were limited by the local materials and the relatively simple
techniques available to them; their vernacular buildings were stylistically
consistent because they did not have the choice of building in any other way.
Today, we have a much greater choice of materials and of building methods. We
can use this choice to design buildings and cities that are more livable than
ever before, or to design buildings and cities that are more sterile and
overwhelming than ever before.
The architecture establishment says we should build in
styles that are “of our time” and that anyone who learns from traditional
architecture is “nostalgic.” They should learn from the more sensible attitude
that we have toward food. The best restaurants use locally grown, fresh
ingredients because they produce healthier, tastier food. Traditional societies
also used locally grown, fresh ingredients, but no one says that these
restaurants are “nostalgic” and that they should use canned or frozen
ingredients produced for the world market because industrial agriculture is “of
No one cares about this sort of precious esthetic criticism
of food because we have very clear criteria for deciding which food are good:
taste and nutritional value. The best restaurants use some new technology, such
as sous vide cooking, but they use them because the food tastes better—not
because they are “of our time.”
These criteria are based on human nature. Our bodies evolved
to need certain nutrients. Our tastes evolved to make us enjoy food that helped
our ancestors survive during the period of evolutionary adaptation. Evolution
has hard-wired these needs and preferences into human nature, and chefs work to
Has evolution also given us preferences about the buildings
that we live in and use? Are there aspects of human nature that architects
should work to accommodate? We will look at this question in the next chapter.
Since the 1970s, the environmental movement has shown us
that we must make a deliberate choice of technologies—for example, by choosing
solar and wind power rather than coal to generate our electricity—but this
movement focuses on limiting the most destructive technologies that pose grave
threats to health or to the natural environment, such as global warming.
Architecture and urbanism could do much more. Because they design the built
environment that we live in, they could help society learn how to use modern
technology in ways that are in keeping with human nature.
Our avant gardists are designing the most dehumanized
buildings ever built, but their approach is not inevitable. Just as
mid-century-modernist architects helped spread faith in technology and
progress, today’s architects could help spread the idea that we should use
modern technology for human purposes.
read more at http://www.preservenet.com/archtech/